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Alteration of the specificity of ecotin, an E. coli serine proteinase inhibitor, by site directed mutagenesis.
FEBS Lett 342, 57-60.
The gene of ecotin, an E. coli proteinase inhibitor, was cloned, and by site-directed mutagenesis the active site residue of the protein, Met84, was mutated to Lys, Arg and Leu. The recombinant wild-type and mutant inhibitors were overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and their inhibitory effects on trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase were compared. Of these serine proteinases trypsin is the most strongly inhibited by wild type ecotin and its mutants. According to our results the character of residue 84 of ecotin significantly but not dramatically modifies the specificity of the inhibitor.
Scallop striated and smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms are produced by alternative RNA splicing from a single gene.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91, 12686-90.
We report here that the catch and striated adductor muscle myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms of scallop (Argopecten irradians, previously Aequipecten irradians) are generated by alternative RNA splicing from a single gene. Scallop catch muscle cDNA and genomic DNA were amplified by PCR using primers based on the previously sequenced scallop striated muscle MHC cDNA. Mapping of the exon/intron borders and sequencing of a full-length catch muscle MHC in overlapping fragments revealed that the 24-kb gene encodes the MHC polypeptide in 27 exons and that four sets of tandem exon pairs are alternatively spliced into a striated and a catch MHC isoform. An additional alternative exon was identified in catch cDNA and is apparently spliced into a minor MHC isoform. The striated muscle-specific isoform is not expressed in other tissues, whereas the catch-type isoforms were also detected in various smooth muscles, but not in the striated one. Of the alternative exons, exons 5 and 6 encode part of the ATP-binding region and the 25-kDa/50-kDa proteolytic junction; exon 13 encodes part of one of the actin-binding regions and extends to the active site; exon 20 encodes the middle of the rod hinge region; exon 26 in the striated-specific sequence starts with the stop codon, whereas the catch-specific exon codes for an additional 10 residues. Differences between the alternative exons presumably determine the lower ATPase activity of smooth muscle myosin, contribute to the different structure of the striated and smooth muscle thick filaments, and may also be important for the molecular mechanism of the catch phenomenon.
Purification and properties of caldesmon-like protein from molluscan smooth muscle.
Comp Biochem Physiol Biochem Mol Biol 108, 59-63.
In this comparative study, the heat-stable protein content of scallop muscles was reinvestigated. The hCaD-like protein was prepared and its properties carefully examined. The heat-stable high-molecular-mass caldesmon-like (hCaD-like) protein is only present in the catch (smooth) muscle and it is completely absent in the striated muscle of scallop. The isolated scallop hCaD-like protein cosediments with F-actin, binds to myosin significantly and inhibits the ATPase activity of acto-myosin. A partial cDNA clone from a Mytilus anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM)-related protein showed strong homology with the hCaD gizzard sequence. This allowed identification of the heat-stable 100-110 kDa protein doublet band isolated in this study as a caldesmon-like molecule.
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes in adrenal glomerulosa cells.
Endocrinology 134, 2354-9.
Expression of the diverse subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor (IP3R) was examined in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. The polymerase chain reaction products were characterized by means of DNA sequencing and/or restriction enzyme mapping. The predominant subtype expressed is IP3R-1; its alternatively spliced variants containing and lacking segment S1 are present in comparable amounts. The expression level of IP3R-2 is about a quarter that of IP3R-1, whereas IP3R-3 is expressed at a very low level. Sodium depletion, a chronic physiological stimulus of glomerulosa cells, failed to influence the expression of IP3R-1, as measured by competitive polymerase chain reaction, and failed to modify the ratio of the different receptor subtypes, as studied with restriction enzyme mapping.