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Synergism with the coactivator OBF-1 (OCA-B, BOB-1) is mediated by a specific POU dimer configuration.
Cell 103, 853-64.
POU domain proteins contain a bipartite DNA binding domain divided by a flexible linker that enables them to adopt various monomer configurations on DNA. The versatility of POU protein operation is additionally conferred at the dimerization level. The POU dimer formed on the PORE (ATTTGAAATGCAAAT) can recruit the transcriptional coactivator OBF-1, whereas POU dimers formed on the consensus MORE (ATGCATATGCAT) or on MOREs from immunoglobulin heavy chain promoters (AT[G/A][C/A]ATATGCAA) fail to interact. An interaction with OBF-1 is precluded since the same Oct-1 residues that form the MORE dimerization interface are also used for OBF-1/Oct-1 interactions on the PORE. Our findings provide a paradigm of how specific POU dimer assemblies can differentially recruit a coregulatory activity with distinct transcriptional readouts.
Resolution of conformational states of Dictyostelium myosin II motor domain using tryptophan (W501) mutants: implications for the open-closed transition identified by crystallography.
Biochemistry 39, 16135-46
When myosin interacts with ATP there is a characteristic enhancement in tryptophan fluorescence which has been widely exploited in kinetic studies. Using Dictyostelium motor domain mutants, we show that W501, located at the end of the relay helix close to the converter region, responds to two independent conformational events on nucleotide binding. First, a rapid isomerization gives a small fluorescence quench and then a slower reversible step which controls the hydrolysis rate (and corresponds to the open-closed transition identified by crystallography) gives a large enhancement. A mutant lacking W501 shows no ATP-induced enhancement in the fluorescence, yet quenched-flow measurements demonstrate that ATP is rapidly hydrolyzed to give a products complex as in the wild-type. The nucleotide-free, open and closed states of a single tryptophan-containing construct, W501+, show distinct fluorescence spectra and susceptibilities to acrylamide quenching which indicate that W501 becomes internalized in the closed state. The open-closed transition does not require hydrolysis per se and can be induced by a nonhydrolyzable analogue. At 20 degrees C, the equilibrium may favor the open state, but with ATP as substrate, the subsequent hydrolysis step pulls the equilibrium toward the closed state such that a tryptophan mutant containing only W501 yields an overall 80% enhancement. These studies allow solution-based assays to be rationalized with the crystal structures of the myosin motor domain and show that three different states can be distinguished at the interface of the relay and converter regions.
Serum albumin-lipid membrane interaction influencing the uptake of porphyrins.
Arch Biochem Biophys 373, 261-70.
It is frequently observed in pharmaceutical practice that entrapped substances are lost rapidly when liposomes are used as carriers to introduce substances into cells. The reason for the loss is the interaction of serum components with liposomes. To elucidate the mechanism of this phenomenon the partition of mesoporphyrin (MP) was systematically studied in model systems composed of various lipids and human serum albumin (HSA). As surface charge is an important factor in the interaction, neutral (1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcoline, DMPC) and negatively charged (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcoline/1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol, DMPC/DMPG = 19/1 w/w) lipids were compared. The liposome/apomyoglobin system was the negative control. The size distribution of sonicated samples was carefully analyzed by dynamic light scattering. Constants of association of MP to the proteins and to the liposomes were determined: K(p,1) = (2.5 +/- 0.7) x 10(7) M(-1), K(p,2) = (1.0 +/- 0.7) x 10(8) M(-1), K(L,1) = (1.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M(-1), and K(L,2) = (3.2 +/- 0.6) x 10(4) M(-1) for HSA, apomyoglobin, DMPC, and DMPC/DMPG liposomes, respectively. These data were used to evaluate the partition experiments. The transfer of MP from the liposomes to the proteins was followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. In the case of apomyoglobin, the experimental points could be interpreted by ruling out the protein-liposome interaction. In the case of HSA, the efflux of MP from the liposomes was strongly inhibited above a critical HSA concentration range for negatively charged vesicles. This effect was interpreted as the result of HSA coat formation on the liposome surface. This direct interaction is significant for small liposomes. The interpretation is fully supported by differential scanning calorimetry experiments.