Publications

2014

Orgován N, Rauscher A, Málnási-Csizmadia A, Derényi I.

Viscosity dependence of passage through a fluctuating bottleneck

J Chem Phys.

We generalize the model of a rate process involving the passage of an object through a fluctuating bottleneck. The rate of passage is considered to be proportional to a power function of the radius of the bottleneck with exponent α > 0. The fluctuations of the bottleneck are coupled to the motion of the surrounding medium and governed by Langevin dynamics. We show numerically and also explain analytically that for slow bottleneck fluctuations the long time decay rate of the process has a fractional power law dependence on the solvent viscosity with exponent α/(α + 2). The results are consistent with the experimental data on ligand binding to myoglobin, and might also be relevant to other reactions for which exponents between 0 and 1 were reported.

Várkuti BH, Yang Z, Malnasi-Csizmadia A.

Structural model of weak binding actomyosin in the prepowerstroke state.

 J Biol Chem.

We present the first in silico model of the weak binding actomyosin in the initial powerstroke state, representing the actin binding-induced major structural changes in myosin. First, we docked an actin trimer to prepowerstroke myosin then relaxed the complex by a 100-ns long unrestrained molecular dynamics. In the first few nanoseconds, actin binding induced an extra primed myosin state, i.e. the further priming of the myosin lever by 18° coupled to a further closure of switch 2 loop. We demonstrated that actin induces the extra primed state of myosin specifically through the actin N terminus-activation loop interaction. The applied in silico methodology was validated by forming rigor structures that perfectly fitted into an experimentally determined EM map of the rigor actomyosin. Our results unveiled the role of actin in the powerstroke by presenting that actin moves the myosin lever to the extra primed state that leads to the effective lever swing.

 Swenson AM, Trivedi DV, Rauscher AA, Wang Y, Takagi Y, Palmer BM, Málnási-Csizmadia A, Debold EP, Yengo CM.

  Magnesium modulates actin binding and ADP release in myosin motors.

 J Biol Chem.

We examined the magnesium dependence of five class II myosins, including fast skeletal muscle myosin, smooth muscle myosin, β-cardiac myosin (CMIIB), Dictyostelium myosin II (DdMII), and nonmuscle myosin IIA, as well as myosin V. We found that the myosins examined are inhibited in a Mg(2+)-dependent manner (0.3-9.0 mm free Mg(2+)) in both ATPase and motility assays, under conditions in which the ionic strength was held constant. We found that the ADP release rate constant is reduced by Mg(2+) in myosin V, smooth muscle myosin, nonmuscle myosin IIA, CMIIB, and DdMII, although the ADP affinity is fairly insensitive to Mg(2+) in fast skeletal muscle myosin, CMIIB, and DdMII. Single tryptophan probes in the switch I (Trp-239) and switch II (Trp-501) region of DdMII demonstrate these conserved regions of the active site are sensitive to Mg(2+) coordination. Cardiac muscle fiber mechanic studies demonstrate cross-bridge attachment time is increased at higher Mg(2+) concentrations, demonstrating that the ADP release rate constant is slowed by Mg(2+) in the context of an activated muscle fiber. Direct measurements of phosphate release in myosin V demonstrate that Mg(2+) reduces actin affinity in the M·ADP·Pi state, although it does not change the rate of phosphate release. Therefore, the Mg(2+) inhibition of the actin-activated ATPase activity observed in class II myosins is likely the result of Mg(2+)-dependent alterations in actin binding. Overall, our results suggest that Mg(2+) reduces the ADP release rate constant and rate of attachment to actin in both high and low duty ratio myosins. We examined the magnesium dependence of five class II myosins, including fast skeletal muscle myosin, smooth muscle myosin, β-cardiac myosin (CMIIB), Dictyostelium myosin II (DdMII), and nonmuscle myosin IIA, as well as myosin V. We found that the myosins examined are inhibited in a Mg(2+)-dependent manner (0.3-9.0 mm free Mg(2+)) in both ATPase and motility assays, under conditions in which the ionic strength was held constant. We found that the ADP release rate constant is reduced by Mg(2+) in myosin V, smooth muscle myosin, nonmuscle myosin IIA, CMIIB, and DdMII, although the ADP affinity is fairly insensitive to Mg(2+) in fast skeletal muscle myosin, CMIIB, and DdMII. Single tryptophan probes in the switch I (Trp-239) and switch II (Trp-501) region of DdMII demonstrate these conserved regions of the active site are sensitive to Mg(2+) coordination. Cardiac muscle fiber mechanic studies demonstrate cross-bridge attachment time is increased at higher Mg(2+) concentrations, demonstrating that the ADP release rate constant is slowed by Mg(2+) in the context of an activated muscle fiber. Direct measurements of phosphate release in myosin V demonstrate that Mg(2+) reduces actin affinity in the M·ADP·Pi state, although it does not change the rate of phosphate release. Therefore, the Mg(2+) inhibition of the actin-activated ATPase activity observed in class II myosins is likely the result of Mg(2+)-dependent alterations in actin binding. Overall, our results suggest that Mg(2+) reduces the ADP release rate constant and rate of attachment to actin in both high and low duty ratio myosins.

Képiró M, Várkuti BH, Végner L, Vörös G, Hegyi G, Varga M, Málnási-Csizmadia A.

 para-Nitroblebbistatin, the non-cytotoxic and photostable myosin II inhibitor.

Angew Chem

Blebbistatin, the best characterized myosinII-inhibitor, is commonly used to study the biological roles of various myosinII isoforms. Despite its popularity, the use of blebbistatin is greatly hindered by its blue-light sensitivity, resulting in phototoxicity and photoconversion of the molecule. Additionally, blebbistatin has serious cytotoxic side effects even in the absence of irradiation, which may easily lead to the misinterpretation of experimental results since the cytotoxicity-derived phenotype could be attributed to the inhibition of the myosinII function. Here we report the synthesis as well as the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a photostable, C15 nitro derivative of blebbistatin with unaffected myosinII inhibitory properties. Importantly, para-nitroblebbistatin is neither phototoxic nor cytotoxic, as shown by cellular and animal tests; therefore it can serve as an unrestricted and complete replacement of blebbistatin both in vitro and in vivo.

Nyitray László

Egy szimmetrikus homodimer Ca(2+)-kötő fehérje, az S100A4 aszimmetrikus kölcsönhatásai

MAGYAR KÉMIAI FOLYÓIRAT - KÉMIAI KÖZLEMÉNYEK 120:(4) pp. 159-166. (2014)

Ikenoue Tatsuya; Lee Young-Ho;Kardos József; Yagi Hisashi; Ikegami Takahisa; Naiki Hironobu; Goto Yuji

Heat of supersaturation-limited amyloid burst directly monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (ISSN: 0027-8424) (eISSN: 1091-6490) 111: (18) pp. 6654-6659. (2014)

Amyloid fibrils form in supersaturated solutions via a nucleation and growth mechanism. Although the structural features of amyloid fibrils have become increasingly clearer, knowledge on the thermodynamics of fibrillation is limited. Furthermore, protein aggregation is not a target of calorimetry, one of the most powerful approaches used to study proteins. Here, with β2-microglobulin, a protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, we show direct heat measurements of the formation of amyloid fibrils using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The spontaneous fibrillation after a lag phase was accompanied by exothermic heat. The thermodynamic parameters of fibrillation obtained under various protein concentrations and temperatures were consistent with the main-chain dominated structural model of fibrils, in which overall packing was less than that of the native structures. We also characterized the thermodynamics of amorphous aggregation, enabling the comparison of protein folding, amyloid fibrillation, and amorphous aggregation. These results indicate that ITC will become a promising approach for clarifying comprehensively the thermodynamics of protein folding and misfolding.

Muta H; Lee YH; Kardos J; Lin Y; Yagi H; Goto Y

Supersaturation-limited amyloid fibrillation of insulin revealed by ultrasonication.

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY (ISSN: 0021-9258) 289: (26) pp. 18228-18238. (2014)

Amyloid fibrils form in supersaturated solutions via a nucleation and growth mechanism. We proposed that ultrasonication may be an effective agitation to trigger nucleation that would otherwise not occur under the persistent metastability of supersaturation. However, the roles of supersaturation and effects of ultrasonication have not been elucidated in detail except for limited cases. Insulin is an amyloidogenic protein that is useful for investigating the mechanisms underlying amyloid fibrillation with biological relevance. We studied the alcohol-induced amyloid fibrillation of insulin using various concentrations of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol at pH 2.0 and 4.8. Ultrasonic irradiation effectively triggered fibrillation under conditions in which insulin retained persistent supersaturation. Structural analyses by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the dominant structures of fibrils varied between parallel and antiparallel β-sheets depending on the solvent conditions. pH and alcohol concentration-dependent phase diagrams showed a marked difference before and after the ultrasonic treatment, which indicated that the persistent metastability of supersaturation determined the conformations of insulin. These results indicate the importance of an alternative view of amyloid fibrils as supersaturation-limited crystal-like aggregates formed above the solubility limit.

Ikenoue Tatsuya; Lee Young-Ho;Kardos József; Saiki Miyu; Yagi Hisashi; Kawata Yasushi; Goto Yuji

Cold Denaturation of Alpha-Synuclein Amyloid Fibrils

ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE INTERNATIONAL EDITION (ISSN: 1433-7851) (eISSN: 1521-3773) 53: (30) pp. 7799-7804. (2014)

Although amyloid fibrils are associated with numerous pathologies, their conformational stability remains largely unclear. Herein, we probe the thermal stability of various amyloid fibrils. α-Synuclein fibrils cold-denatured to monomers at 0-20 °C and heat-denatured at 60-110 °C. Meanwhile, the fibrils of β2-microglobulin, Alzheimer's Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42 peptides, and insulin exhibited only heat denaturation, although they showed a decrease in stability at low temperature. A comparison of structural parameters with positive enthalpy and heat capacity changes which showed opposite signs to protein folding suggested that the burial of charged residues in fibril cores contributed to the cold denaturation of α-synuclein fibrils. We propose that although cold-denaturation is common to both native proteins and misfolded fibrillar states, the main-chain dominated amyloid structures may explain amyloid-specific cold denaturation arising from the unfavorable burial of charged side-chains in fibril cores. Although amyloid fibrils are associated with numerous pathologies, their conformational stability remains largely unclear. Herein, we probe the thermal stability of various amyloid fibrils. α-Synuclein fibrils cold-denatured to monomers at 0-20 °C and heat-denatured at 60-110 °C. Meanwhile, the fibrils of β2-microglobulin, Alzheimer's Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42 peptides, and insulin exhibited only heat denaturation, although they showed a decrease in stability at low temperature. A comparison of structural parameters with positive enthalpy and heat capacity changes which showed opposite signs to protein folding suggested that the burial of charged residues in fibril cores contributed to the cold denaturation of α-synuclein fibrils. We propose that although cold-denaturation is common to both native proteins and misfolded fibrillar states, the main-chain dominated amyloid structures may explain amyloid-specific cold denaturation arising from the unfavorable burial of charged side-chains in fibril cores.

Takeda AN, Oberoi-Khanuja TK, Glatz G, Schulenburg K, Scholz RP, Carpy A, Macek B, Remenyi A, Rajalingam K.

Ubiquitin-dependent regulation of MEKK2/3-MEK5-ERK5 signaling module by XIAP and cIAP1.

EMBO J. 2014 Aug 18;33(16):1784-801. doi: 10.15252/embj.201487808. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are highly conserved protein kinase modules, and they control fundamental cellular processes. While the activation of MAPKs has been well studied, little is known on the mechanisms driving their inactivation. Here we uncover a role for ubiquitination in the inactivation of a MAPK module. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a unique, conserved member of the MAPK family and is activated in response to various stimuli through a three-tier cascade constituting MEK5 and MEKK2/3. We reveal an unexpected role for Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) in the inactivation of ERK5 pathway in a bimodal manner involving direct interaction and ubiquitination. XIAP directly interacts with MEKK2/3 and competes with PB1 domain-mediated binding to MEK5. XIAP and cIAP1 conjugate predominantly K63-linked ubiquitin chains to MEKK2 and MEKK3 which directly impede MEK5-ERK5 interaction in a trimeric complex leading to ERK5 inactivation. Consistently, loss of XIAP or cIAP1 by various strategies leads to hyperactivation of ERK5 in normal and tumorigenic cells. Loss of XIAP promotes differentiation of human primary skeletal myoblasts to myocytes in a MEKK2/3-ERK5-dependent manner. Our results reveal a novel, obligatory role for IAPs and ubiquitination in the physical and functional disassembly of ERK5-MAPK module and human muscle cell differentiation.

Bodor, A, Radnai, L,  Hetényi, Cs, Rapali, P, Láng, A, Kövér, KE, Perczel, A, Wahlgren, WY, Katona, G and Nyitray, L

DYNLL2 dynein light chain binds to an extended, unstructured linear motif of myosin 5a tail

Biochemistry, 53(45):7107-22.  doi: 10.1021/bi500574z. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

LC8 dynein light chains (DYNLL) are conserved homodimeric eukaryotic hub proteins that participate in diverse cellular processes. Among the binding partners of DYNLL2, myosin 5a (myo5a) is a motor protein involved in cargo transport. Here we provide a profound characterization of the DYNLL2 binding motif of myo5a in free and DYNLL2-bound form by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular dynamics simulations. In the free form, the DYNLL2 binding region, located in an intrinsically disordered domain of the myo5a tail, has a nascent helical character. The motif becomes structured and folds into a β-strand upon binding to DYNLL2. Despite differences of the myo5a sequence from the consensus binding motif, one peptide is accommodated in each of the parallel DYNLL2 binding grooves, as for all other known partners. Interestingly, while the core motif shows a similar interaction pattern in the binding groove as seen in other complexes, the flanking residues make several additional contacts, thereby lengthening the binding motif. The N-terminal extension folds back and partially blocks the free edge of the β-sheet formed by the binding motif itself. The C-terminal extension contacts the dimer interface and interacts with symmetry-related residues of the second myo5a peptide. The involvement of flanking residues of the core binding site of myo5a could modify the quaternary structure of the full-length myo5a and affect its biological functions. Our results deepen the knowledge of the diverse partner recognition of DYNLL proteins and provide an example of a Janus-faced linear motif.

Duelli A, Kiss B, Lundholm I, Bodor A, Petoukhov MV, Svergun DI, Nyitray L, Katona G.

The C-Terminal Random Coil Region Tunes the Ca2+-Binding Affinity of S100A4 through Conformational Activation.

PLoS One, 9(5):e97654. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097654

S100A4 interacts with many binding partners upon Ca2+ activation and is strongly associated with increased metastasis formation. In order to understand the role of the C-terminal random coil for the protein function we examined how small angle X-ray scattering of the wild-type S100A4 and its C-terminal deletion mutant (residues 1-88, Δ13) changes upon Ca2+ binding. We found that the scattering intensity of wild-type S100A4 changes substantially in the 0.15-0.25 Å-1 q-range whereas a similar change is not visible in the C-terminus deleted mutant. Ensemble optimization SAXS modeling indicates that the entire C-terminus is extended when Ca2+ is bound. Pulsed field gradient NMR measurements provide further support as the hydrodynamic radius in the wild-type protein increases upon Ca2+ binding while the radius of Δ13 mutant does not change. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a rational explanation of the structural transition: the positively charged C-terminal residues associate with the negatively charged residues of the Ca2+-free EF-hands and these interactions loosen up considerably upon Ca2+-binding. As a consequence the Δ13 mutant has increased Ca2+ affinity and is constantly loaded at Ca2+ concentration ranges typically present in cells. The activation of the entire C-terminal random coil may play a role in mediating interaction with selected partner proteins of S100A4.

Sarlós K, Gyimesi M, Kele Z, Kovács M:

Mechanism of RecQ helicase mechanoenzymatic coupling reveals that the DNA interactions of the ADP-bound enzyme control translocation run terminations.

Nucleic Acids Res. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

The processing of various DNA structures by RecQ helicases is crucial for genome maintenance in both bacteria and eukaryotes. RecQ helicases perform active destabilization of DNA duplexes, based on tight coupling of their ATPase activity to moderately processive translocation along DNA strands. Here, we determined the ATPase kinetic mechanism of E. coli RecQ helicase to reveal how mechanoenzymatic coupling is achieved. We found that the interaction of RecQ with DNA results in a drastic acceleration of the rate-limiting ATP cleavage step, which occurs productively due to subsequent rapid phosphate release. ADP release is not rate-limiting and ADP-bound RecQ molecules make up a small fraction during single-stranded DNA translocation. However, the relatively rapid release of the ADP-bound enzyme from DNA causes the majority of translocation run terminations (i.e. detachment from the DNA track). Thus, the DNA interactions of ADP-bound RecQ helicase, probably dependent on DNA structure, will mainly determine translocation processivity and may control the outcome of DNA processing. Comparison with human Bloom's syndrome (BLM) helicase reveals that similar macroscopic parameters are achieved by markedly different underlying mechanisms of RecQ homologs, suggesting diversity in enzymatic tuning. The processing of various DNA structures by RecQ helicases is crucial for genome maintenance in both bacteria and eukaryotes. RecQ helicases perform active destabilization of DNA duplexes, based on tight coupling of their ATPase activity to moderately processive translocation along DNA strands. Here, we determined the ATPase kinetic mechanism of E. coli RecQ helicase to reveal how mechanoenzymatic coupling is achieved. We found that the interaction of RecQ with DNA results in a drastic acceleration of the rate-limiting ATP cleavage step, which occurs productively due to subsequent rapid phosphate release. ADP release is not rate-limiting and ADP-bound RecQ molecules make up a small fraction during single-stranded DNA translocation. However, the relatively rapid release of the ADP-bound enzyme from DNA causes the majority of translocation run terminations (i.e. detachment from the DNA track). Thus, the DNA interactions of ADP-bound RecQ helicase, probably dependent on DNA structure, will mainly determine translocation processivity and may control the outcome of DNA processing. Comparison with human Bloom's syndrome (BLM) helicase reveals that similar macroscopic parameters are achieved by markedly different underlying mechanisms of RecQ homologs, suggesting diversity in enzymatic tuning.

Kocsis ZS, Sarlós K, Harami GM, Martina M, Kovács M:

A nucleotide- and HRDC-domain-dependent structural transition in DNA-bound RecQ helicase.

J. Biol. Chem. 289: 5938-49.

The allosteric communication between the ATP- and DNA-binding sites of RecQ helicases enables efficient coupling of ATP hydrolysis to translocation along single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and, in turn, the restructuring of multistranded DNA substrates during genome maintenance processes. In this study, we used the tryptophan fluorescence signal of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase to decipher the kinetic mechanism of the interaction of the enzyme with ssDNA. Rapid kinetic experiments revealed that ssDNA binding occurs in a two-step mechanism in which the initial binding step is followed by a structural transition of the DNA-bound helicase. We found that the nucleotide state of RecQ greatly influences the kinetics of the detected structural transition, which leads to a high affinity DNA-clamped state in the presence of the nucleotide analog ADP-AlF4. The DNA binding mechanism is largely independent of ssDNA length, indicating the independent binding of RecQ molecules to ssDNA and the lack of significant DNA end effects. The structural transition of DNA-bound RecQ was not detected when the ssDNA binding capability of the helicase-RNase D C-terminal domain was abolished or the domain was deleted. The results shed light on the nature of conformational changes leading to processive ssDNA translocation and multistranded DNA processing by RecQ helicases.